There are various reasons why cancers appear to be on the increase. For one thing, though their sufferers are to be found in all age groups, cancers are particularly likely to attack persons in their middle and advanced years. Naturally, since people live longer these years, there are more cancer sufferers than before. Again, with better methods of diagnosis (診斷), doctors can more easily recognize cancerous growths that would formerly have passed unnoticed or that would have been wrongly diagnosed. It is also believed that certain habits and conditions of modem living, including heavy smoking and the pollution of the air, may leave people living in more cancer-causing conditions than before.
We all look forward to the day when a simple medical test can find cancer while it is still small. Researchers around the world are working on such a test. Most of their work deals with the examination of the blood.
Researchers in Boston have found something in the blood of cancer patients that does not appear in healthy persons. The test showed which persons had cancer and which did not. It was correct more than 90 percent of the time.
The researchers believe the test may be able to show cancer very clearly in its development. Cancers discovered early usually can be treated successfully.
The test examines very small bits of fat in the blood called lipids (脂質). Cancers seem to change lipids although doctors do not know why. The test showed differences between the lipids of the persons with cancer and the lipids of those without cancer.
The researchers say the new test could be a step to develop a simple way to check patients for cancer before the disease shows on an X-ray.
1. Who will fail cancer from the study of the researchers? A. The young. C. The man.
B. The middle age and the older. D. The woman.
2. The underlined words \
A. the test that shows which persons have cancer and which don’t .
B. the test that may be able to show cancer very early in its development,. C. a simple medical test that cannot find cancer when it is -small D. a new test that could be a step to develop a difficult way
3. Which of the following statements is true according to the passage? A. Cancers have much to do with something in patients’ blood.
B. People living in better conditions are most likely to be attacked by cancer. C.X-raying is the best way to determined whether a person has cancer or not. D. Cancers have nothing to do with a person’s habits and living conditions. 4. What would be the best title for the passage? A. A simple way to cancer C. How to find cancer
B. Cancers can be cured
D. Early discovery of cancer
As a human being you may have the choice of three basic attitudes towards life. You may treat life with the philosophy (哲學) of the vegetable, in which case your life will include being born, eating, drinking, sleeping, marrying, growing old and dying.
The second basic attitude is to look at life as if it were a business. A great many so-called successful men and women believe that life is a business. If you believe so, your first question of life, naturally, is \this attitude, happiness becomes a matter of successful competition. The great majority of human beings today look at life as if it were a business.
The third attitude toward life is the way of the artist. Here the basic philosophy is \put into it?\They value cooperation and contribution. This point of view has been proved by history; for history remembers best those who have contributed most richly to the interests of their fellow-men. The more we investigate(調查),the more we become certain that the artistic attitude is the only one which goes with human happiness.
5. From the passage we know people who take the second life attitude ________. A. are mostly businessmen B. think of getting the interests (利益) first C. find their happiness from hard work
D. take competition as their whole life
6. People who are best remembered by history are probably A. those living on vegetables C. artists
B. successful men D. businessmen
7. We may infer from this passage that ________. A. some people are living only on vegetables B. the artistic attitude is accepted by most people C. the writer prefers the third life attitude
D. artists do most for the society in order to be remembered longer than others
The question of what children learn, and how they should learn, is continually being debated and redebated. Nobody dares any longer to defend the old system, the learning of lessons parrot-fashion, the grammar-with-a-whip system, which was good enough for our grandparents. The theories of modem psychology have stepped in to argue that we must understand the need of children. Children are not just small adults; they are children who must be respected as much.
Well, you may say, this is as it should be, a good idea. But think further. What happens? \becomes the responsibility not of teachers, but of psychologists (心里學家). What happens then? Teachers worry too much about the psychological implications (暗示) of their lessons, and forget about the subjects themselves. If a child dislikes a lesson, the teacher feels that it is his fault, not the child’s. So teachers worry whether history is \to modern young children. And do they dare to recount stories about violence? Or will this make the children themselves violent? Can they tell their classes about children of different races, or will this encourage racial hatred? Why teach children to write grammatical sentences? Verbal expression is better. Sums? Arithmetic? No: Real-life mathematical situations are more understandable.
You see, you can go too far. Influenced by educational theorists, who have nothing better to do than to write books about their ideas, teachers leave their teacher-training colleges filled with grand, psychological ideas about children and their needs. They make elaborate, sophisticated (精致的，復雜的) preparations and try out their \methods\on the long-suffering children. Since one \
by the time they leave school. Frequently the modem methods are so sophisticated that they fail to be understood by the teachers, let alone the children; even more often, the relaxed discipline so essential for the \informal\feelings the class must have, prevents all but a handful of children from learning anything.
8. People do not dare defend the old system mainly because under the old system________. A. too much grammar was taught to children B. children were spoiled (寵壞)
C. children were treated as grown-ups D. children were made to learn passively(被動的)
9. What view do the modem psychologists hold? A. Children must be understood and respected. B. Children are small adults and know what they need. C. Children are better off without learning lessons.
D. Education of children is the responsibility of psychologists.
10. What happens when teachers pay too much attention to the psychology of their lessons? A. They find that the children dislike the lessons. B. They tend to blame students for their failure.
C. They do not pay enough attention to the actual lessons. D. They no longer want to teach children history.
11. Grammatical sentences are regarded as unimportant because ________. A. it is better to use verbs only
B. words are said out of natural feelings only
C. talking freely and naturally without sentences is a better form of expression D. it is felt that formal grammar rules might cause unnatural expressions 12. According to the passage, the modern methods are understood by ________. A. neither teachers nor pupils B. only a handful of teachers and pupils
C. the more sophisticated teachers D. everyone who enjoys the relaxed discipline of the informal classes
1. B 細節題。從第一段中的cancers are particularly likely to attack persons in their middle and advanced years可以知道癌癥尤其容易在中年人和老年人的身體上發生。
2. B 詞義題。第二段中的a simple medical test can find cancer while it is still small；test與后面的such a test指的是同樣的一種方法，所以這里的test指的是上句的“用最簡單的方法診斷早期的癌癥”。
3. A 細節題。第三段中提到了cancer病人血液中的有些東西在健康人中沒有，并且百分之九十以上的情況是這樣的。B項與D項的意思與文章第一段中的certain habits and conditions of modern living including heavy smoking and pollution of the air may leave people living in more cancer-causing conditions不符；C項內容與文章最后一段的意思不符。
4. D 主旨題。文章在開頭就交代了寫作的目的，有各種不同的理由說明了為什么癌癥似乎在上升，而從后面的幾段我們知道科學家們正在研究一種新的早期診斷cancer的方法。
5. B 推斷題。第二種人生態度是把生活看作一種生意，當然是利益最重要了。 6. C 細節題。從最后一段第四句可知。 7. C 推斷題。從文章的最后一句可推知
8. D 推斷題。由第一段第二句“鸚鵡學舌般地課文學習、附帶鞭子的語法教學”可知，這種學習孩子非常被動。
9. A 細節題。由第一段最后一句可知：我們必須懂得孩子們的需要，還要尊重孩子們。 10. C 細節題。由第二段中“教師過多擔心功課的心理暗示，忽略了功課本身”可知。 11. B 推斷題。由第二段中Why teach children to write grammatical sentences? Verbal expression is better可推斷出。
12. A 細節題。由最后一段中Frequently the modem methods…fail to be understood by the teachers，let alone the children可知。